Valery Tsepkalo – director of Hi-tech Park in Minsk (Belarus), the author of the article “On a way to the 'clever' economy”. The article has excited minds of readers of the newspaper “Belarus Segodnya” (, where it was published, and has caused set of responses and comments.

The following is the short review of Valery Tsepkalo's article.

On a way to the 'clever' economy”

Lagged behind for ever?

Nowadays, against an economic crisis, the special urgency face problems of economic strategy. Long centuries division of the people on "eternally rich" and "eternally poor", on front lines and “lagged behind for ever” became habitual. But thanks to correctly chosen course the countries doomed to eternal backwardness, have made improbable economic jerk. The example to it is Singapore, forty years ago on a place of present Singapore skyscrapers cows wandered. Korea and Taiwan have shown outstanding successes too. There are no peoples, more or less than others deserving prosperity and good fortune. There is no religion, more or less promoting economic growth. There are laws of economy which are identical to any, even to the most backward society.

Singapore, Malaysia, Taiwan and South Korea could formulate the bright, fresh ideas, allowed to inspire the population on performance of the accepted plans of economic break.

Progress of development.

Progress in Singapore has begun that has been accepted, as well as in Soviet Union, the programs of development calculated on 5 years. Developed by leaders and their parties almost at once became a basis of national ideology for provided not so much economic calculations, as many belief in creative abilities and the initiative of the people. Creating the ideology was necessary to set for and people the accurate, clear and simple purposes for understanding. And they should be clear not only to compatriots, but also foreign partners. Therefore Singapore has put before itself the main problem - in five years to become the purest capital of the world. Actually cleanliness in the house, in the city and the country - one of signs of people concentration. For example, inhabitants of Florence have dressed white clothes and have cleared of a waste and a dirt of street of the city. When all European cities were full of garbage and dust, when the plague has taken away half of population of continent, Florence has stood thanks to cleanliness and an order. But Singapore has gone further away: there have entered an interdiction for smoking in public places – the same way has dared the USA and the Western Europe and cannot dare anywhere on the post-Soviet territory yet. At the same time Singapore has solved a problem of a healthy way of life. Following the example of Singapore, Malaysia has set for itself a problem in five years to train Malayans in business, Taiwan has set for itself a problem to become the world leader in the field of microelectronics. Thanks to the mutual decision of the government and citizens, Singapore and the countries set forth above have achieved objects in view, set of the countries express desire too to make something useful and necessary for development and improvement of people living.

The control over development.

The state contains a great bulk of officials in the majority of the countries of the world for the business control. Tax specialists, controllers, agents of national security are engaged in search, detection and punishment of the one who has hidden something, has not paid in addition. The home producer, at which building, machine tools, the equipment, materials, cannot «fast curtail trade». He suffers most strongly from everyone checking as unlike the dealer the import goods cannot easily avoid punishment — disappear, be re-registered, etc. Its property can not be fined, seize, arrested. The Russian heads V. Putin and D. Medvedev have taken part in the solemn anniversary devoted to anniversary of creation of "Gazprom". Both with pride declared that the leading Russian corporation almost has come nearer to the leading world companies — Microsoft, General Motors or Sony. Microsoft, both Hewlett–Packard, and Nokia, both Siemens, and Ericsson — the companies, whose resource is the intelligence of engineers, inventors, their abilities and creative abilities. This resource is constantly renewed and increased. And "Gazprom" resource — the raw materials given by the nature. By estimation "Gazprom" will be not so successful in 40 years. The ideology of the state is important. In China the victory on Olympic games became the main idea. First of all the state has invited foreign experts. To China arrived the best trainers from Europe, Russia, America. The great purpose — to become the first-ever in sports — demanded efforts and enthusiasm of all society. Abundantly clear that the state control is necessary for correctness of the order the state property, to control over natural stocks of the country.

Outsourcing of computer programs.

In the world there was a new economic model under the name "outsourcing", which is carrying out of not profile manufactures or processes for limits of the basic company. Carrying out of some manufactures and workings out «on the party» from experiment gradually became the basic model in modern economy. The leading companies of the world began to refuse working out and manufacture of all components for the goods at the factories. Nowadays corporations irrespective of a kind of made production, at the head offices are engaged only in intellectual work — designing of new products, research and workings out, the market analysis, etc. Outsourcing of computer programs. "Outsourcing" has received the brightest display in the business connected with manufacture of computer programs. Any, even the most successful and rich company in the world is unprofitable to hold at itself staff of the experts who are engaged in workings out of the software. While the wages in Belarus low, stimulus to introduce an information technology it is not enough.

Tax policy as the development lever.

In all successfully modernized countries decrease in taxes or their full cancellation in priority branches of economy or in separate territories was the first condition of attraction of the foreign capital. Not only Singapore, Ireland, Malaysia, Taiwan, Korea, but also the huge part of USA, China and India used and use tax stimulus for development of the economy. Very similar fiscal policy took place in Malaysia, Korea and Taiwan where special tax stimulus were given to directions with which the country connected the competitive advantages. The structure of manufacture of computer programs in Belarus answers the chosen model of development: 85 percent — for export and only 15 percent — on home market. The President of Belarus has approved creation of high technologies in the country. The firm confidence of creative ability of the Belarus people was its belief in efficiency of the project. Belief that belorussians are not sillier than other nations of the world. People build houses, apartments, buy cars, go to shopping and to restaurants. All it involves growth of those sectors of economy which are focused on internal demand. First of all building: growth of the companies demands new industrial offices, and growth of well-being of people — new habitation. The aircraft starts to develop roughly — people move on the world in search of new business contacts and commodity markets more. Hotel business develops, there is more supermarkets, cafes, sports halls, beauty salons, laundries and other objects focused on internal demand. By various estimations, indirect taxes from development of an accompanying infrastructure can make to 30 percent from the income received by the citizen. The low payment never was considered as a synonym of high technologies. Therefore as the high tech is a high educational level. And the

investments enclosed in the person, should bring in the worthy income — to the person, the company in which it works, and to the country in which he lives.

Knowledge – is force.

For a 'clever' economy abilities and intelligence are the main productive force. Physically, the laborious work is taken out for limits of the country or for its performance citizens of other countries are invited. And those even are grateful, as receive though any work. At the same time researches show that sharp growth of the State expenditure on formation practically is not reflected in any way in rates of economic growth. The country should prepare experts according to requirements of the development, for example, if the country does not put a problem to become the leader in microbiology hardly in a considerable quantity students biologists and chemists are necessary. To understand a formation role in economy, it is important to see, how people use knowledge, whether they work after the high school termination according to the received knowledge. Presently at modern universities graduates have the right to choose from set of workplaces the most suitable one.

Environment susceptible to innovations.

Despite the fact that what on the saved up knowledge Soviet Union did not concede the USA, all workings out, researches and opening which were financed in Soviet Union from the state budget, were not perceived by economy, they took root in Japan, later in South Korea, but not into the USSR. In it the backlog reason of innovative sphere of the socialist countries from successfully modernized states of Asia. The head of the soviet enterprise became before a dilemma: or development of a new kind of production and introduction of new technology, or growth of volumes of output. Though for innovative economy it is not obligatory to have all the newest and on the advanced technological base but Japanese already have passed to release of house robots ("dogs", "cats" and "people") and other toys. While Japan and other countries of high technologies are engaged in production of inventions, in Russia the emphasis on growth of financing of scientific researches and workings out still becomes. About 10 years ago China begun actively invite the best experts from Russia, Europe and even America for training and preparation of the experts and trainers. And now brain drain on genetic engineering and bio-technologies from the USA to Singapore where the most comfortable and advanced research-and-production centre — the Biopolicy is created is before our eyes observed.

Features of labour motivation.

Practically at any industrial enterprise there is a practice of the account of working hours of employees — the sheet fixing time of their arrival and leaving, an excommunication on those or other affairs. In an adult life the fear before punishment can induce it to do work better and in time. But if someone always studied for himself, has got used to put independently before the purposes and them to achieve, any punishments can give a boomerang effect. Though conducting the sheet of working hours is not purely Soviet invention. Worldwide on traditional manufactures the discipline of employees is supervised by system of personal identification cards. The person in an industrial society is especially valuable, than it is more disciplined. Perhaps, for this reason in «new economy» not the person struggles for work, and the employer starts to supervise the expert. Property relations vary also. The intelligence becomes the main means of production. Its feature that it is inseparable from the owner. At sale of object of intellectual property the property does not leave the owner. The manufacturer sells the computer program to the user, but all the same remains its proprietor.

V. Tsepkalo gives an example of new relations between boss and employees: at the head office of a major programmer firms other than the President of the company were several employees. “We ordered coffee, biscuits and chatted about the prospects of development of information society in different countries. Suddenly one officer awkward movement pours coffee at an expensive boss’s suit. I am accustomed to a system of relations between the chief and his subordinates in the traditional industrial economy, I thought that now cover the head of "a blurred" sharp rips. And that, in turn, will blame excuses, begged him not to punish. And to myself I began to sincerely regret nincompoop. To my surprise, nothing like that happened. The boss laughed and joked that the informal meetings "without ties" with the success could be replaced by meetings "without shirts." Employee although embarrassed, but not at a loss and certainly not afraid. The Secretary quickly picked up his jacket and shirt, took to the dry cleaners and bought a new shirt. In this simple life episode viewed entirely new relationship between people that are unique to the new post-industrial economy”. – relates Valery.

We see a birth of the new people, being the locomotive of fast economic changes. These people, initiative, creatively active, it is high-grade mastering intellectual experience of a human civilization, are a resource of active modernization.

Translated by Ksenia Tsygankova

May 2010

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